Navigation Menu
BRPL FAQ bannner

FAQs

Breadcrumb
BRPL FAQ Content
Q.
How to apply for New Connection?
A.

1: For new Connection of 1 KW to 44 KW: Call BRPL at 19123 (24x7 Toll Free Helpline) OR Visit nearest Division Customer Care Centre OR please click here to apply online

2: For new Connection of 45 KW and above can be applied only online: please click here to apply new connection of 45 KW and above

Q.
What is the procedure and condition required for obtaining 3-phase connection?
A.

For BRPL

You may directly approach our Customer Help Desk at the Divisional Office. A Three Phase Connection at a Domestic/Commercial/Industrial should have a minimum load of 11 KW. All the formalities will remain same as that of a Single Phase Connection.

Q.
What do I have to do after registration for a New Connection?
A.

After registration you will get a unique Request / Application Number. Thereafter an Engineer will visit your premises to verify the details you have submitted, Technical feasibility and the dues existing at your site. Based on his verification, your Application will be accepted or rejected. If the connection is duly sanctioned, a Demand Note will be raised and you will need to deposit the requisite amount within stipulated time period.

Q.
What is sanctioned load & how to calculate the load to be applied for?
A.

Sanctioned load means the load in KW/ KVA which the Licensee has agreed to supply from time to time subject to the governing terms and conditions. Sample energy Calculator is given in Table 1.1.

Q.
Which category should I apply for?
A.

Category Classification is described in Table 1.2.

Q.
What is the cost of Application form?
A.

The requisition form is available free of cost.

Q.
How does the billing system work
A.

After the meter is connected/energised a CA No. is allotted, this determines your Cycle Number. Based on Cycle Number, downloaded readings are taken by our Meter Reader every month. After readings are taken and verified, the data is sent to our Computer Division for generation of the bill. The divisional office then distributes the printed bills through Bill Distributors.

Q.
What is the frequency of billing of a customer – monthly / bi - monthly?
A.

Monthly

Q.
What should I do if I have a billing complaint?
A.

Consumer can approach :

i) Website www.bsesdelhi.com

ii) BSES Mobile App

iii) E Mail (brpl.customercare@relianceada.com)


Moreover, the Consumer Grievance Redressal mechanism available at http://www.bsesdelhi.com/web/brpl/consumer-grievance-process 

Q.
What are the timings of the Cash Counters at the divisional offices?
A.

Our Cash Collection Counters at all divisional offices & other locations are open from 9 AM to 3 PM from Monday to Saturday (except public holidays)

Q.
If I am going outside for a holiday or for urgent work (for say 3-6 months ) then can I pay my bill in 'Advance'?
A.

Yes, you can pay your bill in 'Advance' by making online payment on our website. Click this link https://www.bsesdelhi.com/web/brpl/quick-pay

Type amount you wish to pay in Advance Payment box & press enter. A popup will appear ‘No amount is due against this CA Number , do you still want to make a payment?’. Click on OK to proceed.

Q.
What is Provisional Bill :
A.

In case, for any reason, meter reading is not done during the billing cycle, a provisional bill based on average consumption of same period, previous year shall be issued.

You may also avail of Self Meter Reading facility through WhatsApp. Simply share photo of latest meter reading on 8800919123. We will generate actual bill based on the same reading. This service is also available on BSES smartphone app.

Q.
My last Electricity Bill was Provisional. How can I get a reading based bill?
A.

You can request for actual basis bill, the Executive at the CHD at Divisional Office will send a Meter-reader to get your downloaded Meter Reading and then the bill will be delivered to you either through Courier / Bill Distributor or the consecutive bill will be revised according the downloaded reading after adjusting payment made against provisional bill.

Q.
I do not get my Electricity Bill at the same time as my neighbour. What should I do?
A.

You can approach the concerned division office or register the complaint for Bill Not received

i) Website www.bsesdelhi.com

ii) BSES Mobile App

iii) E Mail (brpl.customercare@relianceada.com)

Q.
How can I get a duplicate copy of my bill?
A.

Duplicate bill can be downloaded online:
A. After registering in “My Account” Section on the web site http://www.bsesdelhi.com or through BSES Mobile App.
B. Duplicate bill link : https://www.bsesdelhi.com/ca/web/brpl/view-duplicate-bill
C. WhatsApp: Send text #BILL <9 digit CA No> to 9999919123

Q.
What is Maximum Demand
A.

Maximum demand represents the highest of the average load measured in KVA or KW at the point of supply during conservative period of 30 minutes, during the month and is represented as MDI on the electricity bill.

Q.
What is an Assessment Bill (meter not recording/meter burnt cases)
A.

An assessment bill shall be raised for the period for which the defective/burnt meter remained on site, based on the estimated consumption by taking the consumption pattern of the consumer for the past 12 months prior to the period during which the meter remained defective. Where the recorded consumption of past 12 months is not available, the next twelve months consumption pattern of new meter would be considered for raising the assessment bill.

Q.
What is Slab calculation? ( An Example)
A.

The calculation of slab is done on the basis of actual number of days in the bill month.

If the billing period is 31 days and covers 26 days of June and 05 days of July respectively with total consumption of 448 units, please find the slab wise calculation for reference:
Calculation of First Slab:   
Calculation for units of June:

200 (First slab units) / 30 (No. of days in June) X 26 (No. of days billed for June)    = 173.33 (units entitled for first slab)
Calculation for units of July:

200 (First slab units) / 31 (No. of days in July) X 05 (No. of days billed for July)       = 32.25 (units entitled for first slab)
                                                                      
  Total units entitled for First Slab = 205.58 Units (Round off 206 Units)

 

Calculation of Second Slab:  

Calculation for units of June:

200 (Second slab units) / 30 (No. of days in June) X 26 (No. of days billed for June)    = 173.33 (units entitled for Second slab)
Calculation for units of July:

200 (Second slab units) / 31 (No. of days in July) X 05 (No. of days billed for July)       = 32.25 (units entitled for first slab)
Total units entitled for Second Slab = 205.58 Units (Round off 205 Units)

 Calculation of Third Slab:   

448 (Total units consumed) – ((206 (First Slab Units) + 205 (Second Slab Units)) = 37 Units

Q.
It seems my current bill is on a higher side. How can I come to know whether it is correct?
A.

If the Bill Basis field shows ‘actual’, this means the bill is generated on the basis of downloaded reading and not on provisional basis.

If you still feel your electricity meter is running fast, please register a request for Meter Testing at brpl.customercare@relianceada.com along with ID proof of registered consumer and paid copy of bill. Please note the requisite fees excluding GST:
A. Single Phase Rs 200
B. Three Phase Rs500

Q.
Why I have not received subsidy in my current bill?
A.

Please refer below eligibility for availing subsidy

1.GoNCTD vide order No. F.11(111)/2012/Power/Vol-III/1417-1427 dated  20.04.2020, has extended subsidy to domestic consumers for period 01.04.2020 - 31.03.2021 as below:

  • Entire current bill amount for consumption upto 200 Units/month.
  • Subsidy upto Rs.800/month for consumption upto 400 Units/month.
  • No subsidy for consumption above 400 Units / month.

2. See Table1 below:

Table 1: Eligibility for subsidy basis consumption

Consumed Units

Monthly Subsidy as per Consumption Slab

Maximum Average Daily Consumption for getting subsidy (Units)

Subsidy to be given in the bill (Rs)

0-200

201-400

400 Above

Month having 28 days

Month having 29 days

Month having 30 days

Month having 31 days

Month having 28 days

Month having 29 days

Month having 30 days

Month having 31 days

0-200

Entire Current amount of bill

NA

NA

7.14

6.9

6.67

6.45

Entire Current amount of bill

201-400

NA

Upto Rs.800

NA

14.29

13.79

13.33

12.9

(No of days billed for this  month  / 28) x 800

(No of days billed for this  month  / 29) x 800

(No of days billed for this  month  / 30) x 800

(No of days billed for this  month  / 31) x 800

Above 400

NA

 

3. To avail subsidy of entire bill amount in 0-200 units slab, your consumption should not exceed:

  • 7.14 units per day in case the month is of 28 days
  • 6.90 units per day in case the month is 29 days
  • 6.67 units per day in case the month is of 30 days
  • 6.45 units per day in case the month is of 31 days

4. To avail subsidy of upto Rs.800/month for second slab of 201-400 units, your consumption should not exceed:

  • 14.29 units per day in case the month is of 28 days
  • 13.79 units per day in case the month is 29 days
  • 13.33 units per day in case the month is of 30 days
  • 12.90 units per day in case the month is of 31 days.

5. Subsidy is not applicable for usage above 400 units/ month

6. Subsidy shall not be allowed during the financial year if an enforcement case is booked due to meter tampering / direct usages of supply.

7. Subsidy not applicable if supply is being used as Temporary supply during the billing period.

8. Maximum monthly subsidy upto Rs 800 (2nd Slab, 201-400 Units)  is applied on total current bill value inclusive of PPAC, electricity tax, pension surcharge etc.

9. See Table 2 & 3  below explaining prorata calculation of  1) maximum units allowed & 2) subsidy value for each of the 2 slabs.

a. Table 2 shows 1st slab (0-200 units) subsidy calculation where entire current bill is reversed.

Table 2: Eligibility for 1st slab: 0-200 units : Entire current bill amount reversed

Example 1

Month

Days in
month
(A)

Month Period

No of days
(B)

Units Allowed
C=(200/A) X B

Subsidy Value (Rs)
D

Billing Period:

Jan

31

27/1/2019- 31/1/2019

5

32.26

 

27/1/2019-26/2/2019

Feb

28

1/2/2019-26/2/2019

26

185.71

 

 

Total

   

31

217.97

Entire Current Bill

Example 2

Month

Days in
month
(A)

Month Period

No of days
(B)

Units Allowed
C=(200/A) X B

Subsidy Value (Rs)
D

Billing Period:

April

30

26/4/2020- 30/4/2020

5

33.33

 

26/4/2020-25/5/2020

May

31

1/5/2020-25/5/2020

25

161.29

 

 

Total

   

30

194.62

Entire Current Bill

 

  • In Example 1 consumer is eligible for subsidy (D) upto entire bill amount for 31 days provided the consumption is within (C) 218 units. Here even after crossing 200 units consumer is eligible for subsidy.
  • In Example2 consumer is eligible for subsidy (D) upto entire bill amount for 30 days provided the consumption is within (C) 195 units. Thus if consumption is 196 units, not eligible  for 1st slab subsidy and 2nd subsidy slab (201-400 units @Rs 800 per month) applies.

b. Table 3 shows 2nd slab (201-400 units) subsidy calculation @ Rs.800/month.

Table 3 : Eligibility for 2nd slab: 201-400 units subsidy @ Rs800 per month

 

Example 3

Month

Days in
month
(A)

Month Period

No of days
(B)

Units Allowed
C=(400/A) X B

Subsidy Value (Rs)
D=(800/A) X B

Billing Period:

Jan

31

22/1/2019- 31/1/2019

10

129.03

258.06

22/1/2019-21/2/2019

Feb

28

1/2/2019-21/2/2019

21

300.00

600.00

 

Total

   

31

429.03

858.06

Example 4

Month

Days in
month
(A)

Month Period

No of days
(B)

Units Allowed
C=(400/A) X B

Subsidy Value (Rs)
D=(800/A) X B

Billing Period:

April

30

21/4/2020- 30/4/2020

10

133.33

266.67

21/4/2020-20/5/2020

May

31

1/5/2020-20/5/2020

20

258.06

516.13

 

Total

   

30

391.40

782.80

 

  • In Example 3 consumer is eligible for subsidy (D)  upto Rs 858.06 for 31 days provided the consumption is within (C) 429 units. Here even after crossing 400 units consumer is eligible for subsidy.
  • In Example 4 consumer is eligible for subsidy (D) upto Rs 782.80 for 30 days provided the consumption is upto (C) 391 units. Thus if consumption is 392 units & above, not eligible for any subsidy.
Q.
What is an Energy Meter?
A.

An energy meter is a device to measure the consumption of energy.

Q.
How is the accuracy of a meter defined?
A.

As per IS 137779/ IEC61036/ ID13010 accuracy of a meter is defined by comparing the difference of energy consumption recorded by "Meter under test" and of the "Reference Meter".
Accuracy (%) = (EMUT - ERef) x 100 (E Ref)
The accuracy of both Mechanical and Electronic meter is defined by above equation.

Q.
How are meters classified and what are the relevant technologies?
A.

Meters are classified as following:-
Household single phase meter - Mechanical/ Electronic meter
Household three phase meter - Mechanical/ Electronic meter 
Commercial Meter - Electronic meter
Industrial Meter - Electronic meter 
HT Meter - Electronic meter 
Grid Meter - Electronic meter
Reference Meter - Electronic meter

Q.
What are the various ratings of meter and how are they defined?
A.

Various ratings of meter are as following:-

Ratings                                 Range*

1. 2.5-5A (Mechanical)     225mA-5Amp

2. 5A-10A (Mechanical)   50mA-10Amp

3.  5A-20A (Mechanical)   50mA-20A

4.  10-40A (Mechanical)    100mA-40A

5.  10-60A (Electronic) 

Q.
What is the effect of aging on energy consumption recording?
A.

Since the mechanical meters have moving parts, so with use these have the tendency of wear and tear resulting in low energy consumption. Same is not applicable for electronic meter as it is a static device.

Q.
Meters accuracy are defined at reference conditions. However, in field voltage, Frequency and Temperature are different. What is the effect of the same?
A.

The permissible effect of field voltage, frequency and temperature on accuracy is defined in IS/ CBIP/ IEC standards. All energy meters in India, in general follow these standards.

Q.
What are the responsibilities of ISI license holder?
A.

After evaluating the product and the manufacturing capabilities, the Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) issues the ISI license to the manufacturer. Meter manufacturer has to ensure all meters strictly follow the relevant Indian Standards and test records of the same are maintained. The misconception that the service company can ask manufacturer to make meters with very high positive error (fast meter) is not possible as if it is found so, the ISI license of the manufacturer can be withdrawn by BIS.

Q.
What is the Maximum Demand Indicator (MDI)? What is its significance for consumer?
A.

Maximum Demand Indicator is an indication about the maximum load used by the consumer for the duration of half-an-hour in the given period. This parameter is significant both for consumer and the service company to decide the sanctioned load and also to plan the network capacity.
Kindly note - Exceeding the sanctioned load attracts penalty.

Q.
What is the meaning of down loading of parameter?
A.

Various parameters measured and recorded by the instrument are finally downloaded for billing/ monitoring purpose. The downloading of parameter means transferring the parameters from meter to the records of the service company. Downloading can be manual i.e. by reading the LCD display recording on a notebook or using some gadgets.

Q.
What is the meaning of a MRI reading?
A.

The gadget used for downloading data is called Meter Reading Instrument (MRI). The biggest advantage of MRI reading is that it avoids human error in recording/ transfer of data.

Q.
What is an AMR system?
A.

Downloading of the parameters using electronic gadgets which are attached to the meter without manual intervention is called Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) system. The gadget attached to the meter downloads the parameter and then automatically communicates it to the computer of the service company.

Q.
What is EL LED? What does it signify if it glows?
A.

The full form of EL LED is Earth Leakage Light Emitting Diode. An EL LED indicator is available on all electronic meters. If this EL LED glows it indicates an unequal current flowing through the phase and neutral wires. This mismatch can be either due to shortening of neural to earth or leakage of current to earth or that the wire of two premises are touching each other.

Q.
What action should a consumer take if the EL- LED glows?
A.

In case the EL LED is found glowing, the consumer should get his wiring checked for the above mentioned defects. Click here for RWA nominated electricians trained by BSES to check internal house wiring.

Q.
What is the significance of REV LED?
A.

 

The REV LED indicator lights up to show the reverse flow of energy from consumer to the grid.

Q.
What action consumer should take if REV LED glows?
A.

In case REV LED is glowing then the consumer should ensure that generator/ inverter is totally isolated from the grid. Ever after that if the REV LED is found ON the consumer should call the service company for a check.
Kindly note the glowing of REV LED does not affect the accuracy of energy meters. Sometimes "REV" LED glows at "no load" condition and can thus be ignored.

Q.
What is the role of "N cut" and what action consumer should take?
A.

The "N cut" LED (which is provided in few meters) indicates a loose wire at the meter end. In case consumer finds such LED glowing he should call the service company for retightening of all the wires in the meter to ensure proper supply to meter.

Q.
What is TOD Tariff?
A.

Time of the Day tariff is a provision wherein a consumer is charged for the energy recorded by the meter at differential rates, during different time slots of the day, as notified by DERC.

Existing tariff stipulates a 25% rebate during off peak hours, whereas, an additional 20% surcharge over the normal tariff is levied on consumption recorded during peak hours.

Q.
Who can avail this tariff?
A.

It is applicable to all categories of consumer other than domestic. It is mandatory for consumers having a sanctioned load or maximum demand above 50 kW / 54 kVA. However, it is optional for the consumers in the load range of 25-50 kW

Q.
What are the time zones and applicable tariff?
A.

The peak and non peak hours with applicable TOD tariff is given as below:

Month Peaks Hours Surcharge on energy charges Off peak Hours Rebate on energy Charges
April - September 1500-2400 Hrs 20% 00:00 – 06:00 Hrs 25%
October - March 1700-2300 Hrs 20% 23:00 – 06:00 Hrs 25%

Note: For other than Peak and off- peak Hrs, normal charges will be applicable as per the tariff schedule applicable w.e.f. 17-07-2014

Q.
What are the benefits to the consumer?
A.

This is an opportunity for consumers in the optional category to make best use of time of the day metering and reduce their electricity bills substantially. The illustration given below shows the potential savings on per unit of usage of electricity for Non Domestic and Industrial categories (25 to 50 KW load) who opt for TOD tariff.

Category Tariff Rate Rebate during off peak Hrs
Tariff @25% Rebate Saving
Non-Domestic 850 Paisa/kVah 638 Paisa/kVah 212 Paisa/kVah
Industrial 790 Paisa/kVah 593 Paisa/kVah 197 Paisa/kVah

 

Q.
What is the Meaning of terms Volts, Watts and Kilowatt Hours?
A.

The correct use and meaning of many electrical terms have, in many cases, become unclear through general use. These explanations attempt to show the correct usage of these terms.

Electrical Terminology - VOLTS, WATTS and KILOWATT HOURS
1. That the electricity supplied to your home is at 240 volts;
2. That transmission lines (the ones using large steel towers) operate at "high voltage";
3. That you use light bulbs of different wattage (e.g. 75 watt or 60 watt) in your home;
4. That when you purchase a new electrical heater, one of your considerations is its wattage (e.g. 1,000 watts); and That when you pay your quarterly electricity bill, you are paying for the kilowatt-hours of electricity you have used in your home during that period.

These are the electrical terms most frequently used, both at work and at home. For example you may (or may not) know: Electrical voltage can be thought of as a measure of the electrical "pressure" applied to the electrical system to force the electricity to flow through the wires. A commonly used analogy is the water supply to your home where the water pressure forces the water through the pipes.

Voltage is measured in volts (V). For convenience, higher voltages are identified in kilovolts (kV) where 1 kV = 1,000 V.

In the "high voltage" parts of the electrical supply network, voltages of 11 kV, 33 kV, 66 kV, 110 kV and 275 kV are common.

In the "low voltage" part of the electricity supply network, your home is supplied with 240 V electricity and, if you have a large air conditioner, with 415 V electricity. (More correctly, these should be called a 240 V single phase supply and a 415 V 3-phase supply. We will talk about "phases" in a later discussion.)

Electrical wattage is a harder concept to visualise because it is, essentially, a measure of how fast electricity is being used - more correctly the "rate of use of electrical energy". For example, a 2,000 W electrical heater would use electrical energy twice as fast as a 1,000 W heater. For convenience, the term kilowatt (kW) is often used instead of 1,000 watts. The wattage of the new 1,000 W electrical heater mentioned above therefore could be identified as 1 kW.

At the other end of the electricity supply system, power stations are producing electricity to match the rate at which electricity is consumed by the end users (plus losses). The "rate at which electrical energy can be produced" determines the wattage of a power station. Usually, power stations are rated in terms of kilowatts (kW) or megawatts (MW) where 1 MW = 1,000 kW.

Electrical energy is commonly measured in terms of kilowatt-hours (kWh) here 1 kWh = 1,000 watt-hours. As a simple example, the 1 kW electrical heater mentioned above would use 1 kWh of electrical energy during each hour it is switched on (i.e. electrical energy used in 1 hour = 1 kW x 1 hour = 1 kWh).

Large amounts of electrical energy are measured in terms of megawatt-hours (MWh) where 1 MWh = 1,000 kWh, or gigawatt-hours (GWh) where 1 GWh = 1,000 MWh.

Note: The "rate of use of electrical energy" (kW) in your home is continually varying. The meter in the switchboard of your home is designed to overcome this variability in its recording of your consumption of electrical energy (kWh). Your electricity account uses data from this meter to identify the amount of electrical energy (kWh) you have used (and for which you have to pay) during the period.

Q.
What is meant by the terms AC, DC and frequency?
A.

Electricity is said to flow when electrons in a suitable material (a "conductor") are induced to move in a particular direction when a suitable force (an "electromotive force" or EMF) is applied to the material. This flow of electricity is called an electrical current and is measured in terms of amperes (usually shortened to amps). The EMF is measured in terms of volts.

Direct Current (DC) electricity is the easiest to visualise because here the electrons (the electrical current) always move in the same direction. A battery is the EMF source most commonly used to produce small amounts of direct electrical current.

For example, the common torch uses a battery as the EMF source. Electrical current flows from one side (e.g. the positive side) of the battery, through the element in the torch bulb (in the process heating the element to produce light) and completes the circuit back to the other side (e.g. the negative side) of the battery.

Alternating Current (AC) electricity can be thought of as electricity that flows in one direction for a short period of time, then reverses its direction of flow for a short period of time, then reverses flow again, and again, and again.. Why does it do this? It's because the EMF source is not constant and changes its polarity (positive and negative sides) in a regular manner. The rate at which the electrical current changes direction through a full cycle (flows in one direction, changes direction and flows in the opposite direction then changes back to the original direction) is called its "frequency".

Q.
What is meant by the term 'Phases'?
A.

Alternating Current (AC) electricity changes its direction of flow in a regular, cyclic manner. Because electrical current flows in response to an applied voltage, the voltage of the AC supply must also have been changing polarity from positive to negative and back again at the same frequency as the alternating current.

The distribution line supplying your home may be single phase and have only two wires strung between the poles (we will use the overhead power lines as examples because they can be easily seen). However, the distribution line may be made up of 4 lines. What are the others? The other lines carry the currents from two other electrical circuits, making a total of three circuits. Because these circuits are electrically linked (see below), they are called phases. The reason why there are only 4 lines is because the 3 phases have a common neutral line (i.e. 3 active lines and 1 common neutral line).

In this "low voltage" part of the distribution system, the voltage between the active and neutral wires is 240 volts. The neutral wire is kept at the same electrical potential as the earth, so that the voltage between the active and earth is also 240 volts. The voltage between the phases in the low voltage distribution system is 415 volts (in Australia). A 415 volt 3-phase supply is able to deliver more energy than a 240 volt single phase supply. A 3-phase supply to a home would normally be required only for large electrical loads. 3-phase supplies are common in industrial areas and shopping centers.

Q.
What is ‘Earthing’, and how do safety switches work?
A.

The power points in your home have three sockets. Some of your appliances have three pin plugs while other appliances have only two pin plugs. Why? The answer lies in the concept of "Earthing".

The lower two sockets in a power point are connected to the active and neutral wires. The top socket is connected to a separate wire which is "earthed" (connected to the earth). The need for a separate earth wire can be explained by considering your toaster. A toaster usually has a metal enclosure. Because metals are electrical conductors (i.e. allow electricity to pass through them), this metal enclosure is "earthed" so that, if the active wire came in contact with the metal enclosure, the electricity would pass to earth. An appliance that requires its enclosure to be earthed must therefore have a three pin plug (active, neutral and earth).

An increasing number of appliances are enclosed in materials that prevent the flow of electricity through them (i.e. they are electrical insulators). Because these insulated enclosures do not need to be earthed, the appliances may have plugs with only two pins (active and neutral).

If, for any reason, the active wire comes in contact with the earth wire, the electrical current (flow of electricity) passing through the active wire to earth through the earth wire could be large enough to activate the overload protection device in the active wire's circuit.

A circuit is the term used to describe an active wire that can be isolated from within your home's switchboard. For example, your electric hot water system and your electric stove usually have their own circuits. Your power points may all be connected to the one "power" circuit or they could be divided into two or more separate power circuits. Your lights could also be supplied from one or more "lighting" circuits. Each circuit in your home should be protected against overload by a device that senses the current passing through the active wire of the circuit and isolates the circuit when the current is too high. The overload protection device could be a fuse (a special type of wire that melts if the current passing through it is more that its rated current). More usually now, the overload protection device could be a type of switch that operates on current overload.

We saw above that the overload protection device in a circuit could operate if the active wire contacted the earth wire. A current overload could also occur if the active wire came into direct contact with the neutral wire.

Let us now look at what happens when you become part of an electric circuit. If you contact an active wire and you are electrically connected to the earth, current will pass through you to earth. If your connection to earth is poor (e.g. you are standing on a carpet or a wood chair), you may be lucky enough to escape with only a mild shock. If not, the size and duration of the electric current passing through you to ground may have more drastic consequences! A current could also flow through you if you contact both the active and neutral wires.

In both these cases, the current passing through you may be high enough to activate the circuit's overload protection device and turn off the supply to that circuit - but by the time that happened, it may have been too late so save you. What is needed is a device that would sense that something is wrong and switch off the supply of electricity before you are injured.

One such device is the "safety switch". This device is also called an "earth leakage circuit breaker" because of the way it operates. To understand how it operates, we need to realise that, in a normal circuit, the current flowing in the active wire of the circuit is exactly the same as the current in the neutral wire of the circuit. If a fault occurs in the circuit and some current flows to earth, the current in the neutral wire would be less than the current in the active wire. A safety switch senses this imbalance in currents and isolates the circuit if the imbalance becomes greater than a preset value. Because safety switches can sense and react to this type of situation much quicker (and at a smaller current) than a normal overload protection device, severe electrical shocks and electrocutions are prevented.

However, it must be realised that safety switches cannot protect you if you come in contact with both the active and neutral wires because in this case current does not flow to earth and there is no imbalance in the active and neutral currents.

Q.
The advantages of Earthing.
A.

The practice of Earthing is widespread, but not all countries in the world use it. There is certainly a high cost involved, so there must be some advantages. In fact there are two. They are:

1. The whole electrical system is tied to the potential of the general mass of earth and cannot 'float' at another potential. For example, we can be fairly certain that the neutral of our supply is at, or near, zero volts (earth potential) and that the phase conductors of our standard supply differ from earth by 240 volts.
2. By connecting earth to metalwork not intended to carry current (an extraneous conductive part or an exposed conductive part) by using a protective conductor, a path is provided for fault current which can be detected and, if necessary, broken. The path for this fault current is shown in

 

Q.
The practice of Earthing is widespread, but not all countries in the world use it. There is certainly a high cost involved, so there must be some advantages. In fact there are two. They are: 1. The whole electrical system is tied to the potential of the general mass of earth and cannot 'float' at another potential. For example, we can be fairly certain that the neutral of our supply is at, or near, zero volts (earth potential) and that the phase conductors of our standard supply differ from earth by 240 volts. 2. By connecting earth to metalwork not intended to carry current (an extraneous conductive part or an exposed conductive part) by using a protective conductor, a path is provided for fault current which can be detected and, if necessary, broken. The path for this fault current is shown in
A.

a. Apparent safety: no obvious path for shock current.
b. Actual danger: shock current via stray resistance and capacitance.

Q.
Useful Electricity Tips.
A.

Don’t keep electrical appliances switched ‘ON’ in idle condition.
Always use Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB) to avoid leakage and unbalance in circuit.
Please ensure total isolation of Phase and Neutral wires. 
Always use magnetic switches for appliances with heavy motors. 
Inverters and Generators should be totally isolated from each other.
Avoid use of extension chords and don’t leave them dangling or trailing on the floor.